Because the Performing Chairman of the Financial and Monetary Crimes Fee (EFCC), Ibrahim Magu, solutions the costs in opposition to him earlier than the Directorate of Safety Providers (DSS) and an administrative panel headed by former President of Courtroom of Enchantment, Justice Ayo Salami, Deputy Editor, EMMANUEL OLADESU, studies that one other chapter is about to shut within the annals of EFCC.

One other chapter is about to shut within the annals of the Financial and Monetary Crimes Fee (EFCC).

Its Performing Chairman, Ibrahim Magu, is within the eye of the storm. Like his predecessors – Mallam Nuhu Ribadu, Mrs. Farida Waziri and Ibrahim Lamorde – his destiny hangs within the steadiness as he solutions prices earlier than the Directorate of Safety Providers (DSS) and an administrative panel headed by former President of Courtroom of Enchantment, Justice Ayo Salami.

Magu, a police officer and pioneer workers of the anti-graft physique, occupies an vital place as anti-financial crime czar as a result of the struggle in opposition to corruption is a significant pillar of the Muhammadu Buhari administration.

The president has permitted his suspension. Is the top of an period not imminent?

Opinion is split on his present ordeals, which have been a end result of his nasty experiences since his appointment. The hunter has turn into the hunted. Some observers contend that Magu is about to be consumed by political intrigues within the excessive hall of energy, forward of 2023. Will he be sacrificed on the alter of actual politik?

Though Justice Salami, head of the fact-finding committee, promised a good listening to, the way of his invitation with no letter, in line with sources, conveyed the impression that he was hijacked on the street and brought to custody. To the critics, the method was lower than honourable underneath an administration that pontificates on the rule of legislation and due course of.

However, some commentators additionally argue that the allegations levelled in opposition to him are weighty, stressing that no one is above investigation. Subsequently, he shouldn’t be insulated from trial and punishment for indulgence in infractions, if discovered culpable. To the latter group, Magu stands out as the architect of his personal predicament.

The allegations in opposition to the embattled appearing chairman embrace:

  • Alleged discrepancies within the reconciliation data of the EFCC and the Federal Ministry of Finance on recovered funds;
  • Declaration of N539billion as recovered funds as a substitute of N504b earlier claimed;
  • Insubordination to the Workplace of the AGF by not looking for his approval on some selections;
  • Not offering sufficient proof for the extradition of ex-Minister of Petroleum Assets, Diezani Alison-Madueke;
  • Alleged late motion on the investigation of Course of and Industrial Improvement (P&ID) resulting in authorized dispute;
  • Not respecting court docket order to unfreeze a N7billion judgment in favour of a former govt director of First Financial institution;
  • Alleged delay in appearing on two vessels seized by Nigerian Navy resulting in the lack of crude;
  • Alleged favouring of some investigators known as Magu’s Boys;
  • Reporting some judges to their presiding officers with out deferring to the AGF;
  • Alleged gross sales of seized property to cronies, associates and buddies, and
  • Alleged issuance of investigative actions to some media prejudicial to some circumstances.

GENESIS OF EFCC

A wild applause greeted the institution of the EFCC and the Impartial Corrupt Practices Fee (ICPC) by former President Olusegun Obasanjo, 17 years in the past. That adopted critical warnings by improvement specialists who had established a hyperlink between graft in excessive locations and the failure of governance. They identified that the nation could proceed to wallow in poverty, squalor and underdevelopment, until the dangerous eggs are edged out and dropped at guide to function deterrents.

Earlier than the fee was conceived by former President Olusegun Obasanjo, the nation’s popularity had been smeared by graft. Efforts by successive administrations to curb it have been abortive. When Gen. Muhammadu Buhari toppled the civilian authorities in 1983, he cited corruption to justify his motion. Subsequently, when Obasanjo took over in 1999, stemming the drift turned a precedence. Specifically, the company was arrange as a response to stress from the Monetary Motion Activity Pressure on Cash Laundering (FATF), which named Nigeria as considered one of 23 international locations that had refused to cooperate with the worldwide group in its avowed dedication to eradicate cash laundering and advance charge fraud.

In response to the Financial and Monetary Crimes Fee (Institution) Act, 2003, the company is designated because the Monetary Intelligence Unit (FIU) in Nigeria, with the accountability of co-coordinating the varied establishments preventing cash laundering and the enforcement of all legal guidelines coping with financial and monetary sabotage; counterfeiting, unlawful cost transfers, market fraud, fraudulent encashment of negotiable devices, bank card fraud, and contract rip-off.

Its powers additionally embrace the adoption of measures to determine, freeze, confiscate or seize proceeds derived from terrorist actions, financial and monetary crime-related offences.

In consonance with the EFCC Act, the search mild has been beamed on suspected people, company our bodies or teams.

At its inception, tracked down corrupt politicians and public officers, notably serving governors, ministers, Nationwide Meeting members and members of boards and parastatals, who looted the treasury and enriched themselves to the detriment of different residents. The concern of EFCC turned the start of knowledge.

Outstanding politicians who’ve been tried and convicted embrace former Governor Joshua Dariye of Plateau State and his Taraba counterpart, Pastor Jolly Nyame. Many have been on trial for greater than 12 years and there’s no finish in sight.

Nevertheless, residing to its billings has been very difficult in a rustic the place corruption has been preventing again and authorized frameworks have typically been subverted or undermined to derail the anti-corruption campaign.

The company has confronted two challenges that had thwarted its efforts. These are the prolonged or extended prosecution timeframe, absence of a separate anti-financial crime tribunal or court docket to hurry up trials, and political pressures.

A authorized luminary, Yusuf Ali (SAN), who previously had dissected the issues confronting the company, mentioned public apprehension over the destiny of the corrupt circumstances filed by the EFCC was not misplaced. He noticed that the time-frame for disposing the circumstances had typically been too lengthy.

Ali recognized main causes for the protracted litigations. He doubted if the EFFC had certified individuals to deal with its investigation. He mentioned, if investigations weren’t totally performed, the case would endure collection of adjournment. “The query one may ask right here needs to be whether or not the EFCC has performed its project correctly earlier than heading to court docket,” he confused.

Second, the defendants typically battle again by their attorneys, who capitalise on the loopholes within the prices most popular in opposition to them and apply for frequent adjournment.

Third, the EFCC prosecution wants specialised coaching in order that they might file the costs correctly and seem at each listening to with out encumbrance.

Fourth, Nigerians perspective to circumstances of corruption will not be useful. “There isn’t a stress on anyone to do the appropriate factor,” the lawyer added. Additionally, he mentioned the judiciary should be effectively outfitted to carry out. “Our judges nonetheless document court docket continuing in lengthy hand, which prolongs trial of circumstances”, he fumed.

Lawyer and human rights activist, Chidi Ewulum, blamed the sluggish dispensation of justice on the EFCC’s shady investigation and the penchant for submitting modification prices in opposition to accused individuals after their arraignment. He mentioned the defendants’ counsel all the time seize that chance to ask for adjournments to allow them examine and reply to the brand new prices.

Ewulum noticed that the attorneys employed by the EFCC for the prosecution have con tributed to the setbacks. He suspected that lots of them could connive with the defence group to elongate the fits, particularly, these involving extremely positioned individuals for his or her mutual profit. He additionally noticed that former governors on trial adopted a well-known sample of difficult the jurisdiction of the courts.

In his view, the workplace of the Lawyer-Common of the Federation and Minister of Justice could also be a clog within the wheel of EFCC as a result of the minister could dictate to the fee on the case to prosecute or not. He known as for full autonomy for the EFCC, if corruption should be diminished within the civil and public service.

Nevertheless, the EFCC spokesman, Wilson Uwujaren, claimed that these accusing the fee of abandoning the case recordsdata of corrupt politicians and governors achieve this out of ignorance. He mentioned the anti-graft company has performed a lot and had taken excessive profile circumstances to court docket to find out.

He lamented that, despite the fee’s efforts to vary the mindset of Nigeria that culprits are going through the legislation, corruption appears to pervade all of the aspects of the financial system.

EFCC CHAIRMEN’S TURBULENT TENURE

From 2003 thus far, EFCC has been led by 4 chairmen. They’re Ribadu, Waziri, Lamorde and Magu. The primary three bowed out in controversial circumstances. It’s uncertain if the appearing chairman can escape the identical destiny.

RIBADU

The pioneer chairman, Ribadu, police officer and lawyer, wished to set a excessive customary within the fee. The profession legislation enforcement officer fought the struggle with vigour. But, his tenure was filled with rigidity because the formidable forces he was combating weren’t prepared to give up. Obasanjo, who appointed him, was impressed by his efficiency. He mentioned he would re-appoint him, if he had the chance to take action.

Ribadu has no priority to lean on as against the law fighter. Though he was effectively ready for the job as an professional, EFCC was a distinct terrain, in contrast to the police. Reflecting on his appointment, the Adamawa-born anti-graft govt mentioned: “My appointment because the Chairman of the EFCC was a name to take up a turbulent job. I needed to observe the statements of my beforehand written will to serve in a rustic the place there’s lack of useful establishments to test the mismanagement of public funds and associated prison misconduct. Belief in public establishments had been demolished and perpetrators went about sporting their crimes like badges of honour. He added: “I used to be given an appointment to face in the way in which of those celebrated fraudsters, with out an workplace and funds to launch my operations. However, we went on to kind what turned a main anti-corruption physique within the nation. Our actions are left for historical past and sincere critics of political evolution to gauge and inform of our impression.”

Beneath Ribadu, the fee tackled monetary corruption by prosecuting and convicting a lot of high-profile corrupt people, starting from Nigeria’s former chief legislation enforcement officer to many financial institution chief executives. In 2005, the EFCC arrested authorities officers, together with former Bayelsa State Governor Diepreye Alamieyeseigha.

In September 2006, the company had concluded investigations on 31 of 36 governors for corruption. In April 2008, it investigated Obasanjo’s daughter, Senator Iyabo Bello, for allegedly receiving N10 million ($100,000) from the Ministry of Well being. The previous Well being Minister,  Prof. Nike Grange, and her deputy, Chief Gabriel Duku, have been tried over N30,000,000 ($300,000) unspent funds from the ministry. The court docket later exonerated them.

In the direction of the top of his tenure, issues went awry for the charismatic chairman. A collection of occasions virtually made his tenure to finish in anti-climax. It was alleged that the previous President was utilizing the fee to witch-hunt perceived political foes. Ribadu was criticised for selective anti-corruption struggle. Additionally, he claimed that the bar and the bench threw obstacles on his path by unduly prolonging litigations in courts. For instance, a former governor succeeded in acquiring a perpetual injunction restraining EFCC from probing his actions as governor.

Following the peaceable change of presidency in 2007, Ribadu was at crossroads underneath the Yar’Adua administration. Some ex-Peoples Democratic Celebration (PDP) governors turned the warmth on him.

On August 6, 2008, the poster boy met a brick wall. Ribadu noticed the handwriting on the wall. However, he couldn’t avert his fall. He was demoted from Assistant-Inspector Common (AIG) to Deputy Commissioner of Police (DCP). He was despatched to the Institute of Coverage and Strategic Research, Kuru, Jos, for a course. He reacted to the humiliation by refusing the service switch. Ribadu disappeared into the air, solely to reappear later as a politician.

WAZIRI

On June 6, 2008, Waziri, police officer and lawyer, was sworn in because the chairperson of the EFCC. Her tenure was short-lived and turbulent. She spent solely three years in workplace. She operated underneath sure constraints. But, critics all the time used the Ribadu period as a yardstick for judging her efficiency.

One of many criticisms that trailed her appointment and tumultuous reign was that she was sponsored by former PDP governors, who have been near the late President Umaru Yar’Adua.

In September 14, 2010, the Head of the Forensic Unit of the EFCC, Abdullahi Muazu, was assassinated in Kaduna. He had been actively concerned within the trials of a number of heads of banks. Many critics complained that the struggle had slowed down, declaring that fewer convictions have been secured.

Waziri was alarmed on the behaviour of suspects who stormed the courts throughout their trials with drums and supporters who cheered them. The suspects would wave on the rented crowd, thereby conveying the impression that they have been being victimised by the federal government.

The previous chairperson was dismissed by President Goodluck Jonathan on November 23, 2011. She claimed in her memoir, ‘One Step Forward,’ that she was shoved apart as a result of EFCC underneath her management was pursuing oil thieves who have been behind the oil subsidy rip-off. However, the previous president maintained that he sacked her in nationwide curiosity.

LAMORDE

Lamorde, who changed Waziri as Performing Chairman, was confirmed because the chairman on February 15, 2012 by the Senate.

He was a pioneer workers of EFCC, typically described because the “valiant coronary heart” of the fee and the rallying level within the partnership between the EFCC and its strategic allies. He served twice because the Director of Operations and Performing Chairman.

Lamorde is knowledgeable with huge expertise in fraud investigation spanning greater than twenty years. He was a silent operator; hardworking and diligent.

Whereas he was with the SFU, he served with the United Nations Civilian Police in East Timor from March 2000 to March 2001. He was the Chief Investigation Officer of Ermera District of East Timor. In September 2002, he was transferred to Oyo State, the place he served as Divisional Police Officer, till April 2003. Following the delivery of EFCC, he was seconded to function the Director of Operations from April 2003 to December, 2007. He was appointed the Ag. Chairman of the EFCC in January, 2008 to Could, 2008. He was recalled again to the Nigeria Police and posted to the Space Command in Ningi, Bauchi State because the Space Commander from June, 2008 to November 2008. He was later redeployed to the Bauchi State Police Command, Prison Investigation Division (CID) because the Officer -in -Cost. In December 2010, he was recalled to the Financial and Monetary Crimes Fee as Director of Operations. He held that place till his appointment because the Ag. Chairman of the EFCC on Wednesday, November 23, 2011.

He supervised the prosecution of 522 ‘Advance Payment Fraud’ circumstances at numerous Excessive Courts between April 2003 and June 2008. The efforts led to the extradition of three fugitives to the US.

Nevertheless, his tenure ended on a sore be aware. He was accused of fraternising with key politicians and public figures. He was additionally floated for the curious slowness within the investigation and prosecution of some ex-governors.

The Senate alleged that $5billion was lacking within the EFCC, including that the cash was illegally diverted. Later, George Uboh despatched a petition to the federal government, alleging critical infractions by the company. The picture of the fee was dented by these controversies. The Senate Committee on Ethics, Privileges and Public Petitions was set as much as examine Lamorde. In 2016, the Senate resolved {that a} warrant of arrest needs to be issued on him for allegedly misappropriating N1 trillion.

Irked by the general public outcry, Lamorde was eliminated by President Buhari on November 9, 2015.

MAGU

Magu, Assistant Commissioner of Police, got here on board on November 11, 2015. It was at a historic second when President Buhari believed that if Nigeria refused to kill corruption, the menace will kill the nation.

Instantly, the appearing chairman swung into motion. He turned a terror to deprave public officers, incomes respect as a tricky and thorough investigator, whose expertise, talent and magnificence may make the bravest fret and tremble. He was on the firing line in opposition to the symbols of sleaze.

By no means within the historical past of the anti-corruption battle in Nigeria has the struggle been taken extra severely. He took the battle to the doorsteps of the elite who have been chargeable for the nationwide financial adversity. Within the final 4 years, the nation has been scorching for the looters of the nationwide treasury.

Nevertheless, regardless of his indomitable ardour, patriotism, braveness and self-confidence, a darkish cloud hovered over his illustrious profession on the level of securing the place of appearing chairman. .

The mud splattered on him by the rejection of his nomination by the Senate provoked a notion burden that boxed him and the company he heads right into a kind of dilemma. The impression was additionally created within the worldwide group that the anti-graft battle had suffered a setback. Magu was underneath scrutiny from day one. Some commentators mentioned he was a sufferer of excessive degree conspiracy.

On his first day in workplace, he promised to “ginger up” the anti-corruption marketing campaign. “There’s the necessity to guarantee that no matter is gotten for widespread use doesn’t find yourself in personal pockets,” he mentioned, charging the EFCC operatives to be up and doing.

The appearing chairman expressed bitterness over the penchant for fraud by some unscrupulous leaders. He mentioned he typically shed tears over billions of naira looted by previous leaders. If the cash had been channeled correctly to the nation’s improvement, Nigeria would have turn into an Eldorado, he added.

In 5 years, Magu’s achievements virtually dwarfed these of his predecessors, whose tenures ended controversially.

Many believed that he was absolutely ready for the arduous job. Aside from having a level in Accounting, he was skilled in monetary crimes investigation at the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and London Metropolitan Police Institute. He was a pioneer workers of the EFCC underneath Ribadu. His project was very tedious. He was Head of the Financial Governance Unit (EGU), which is chargeable for investigating highly effective and influential senior authorities officers.

His colleagues at work described him as a reliable and diligent investigator, who pursued his official duties with a missionary zeal. The EGU is a delicate unit. As the top of the unit, Magu spearheaded some vital investigations. They embrace the function of former Kwara State Governor and Senate President Bukola Saraki within the collapse of Societe Generale Financial institution of Nigeria. He additionally probed former Delta State Governor James Ibori, who was convicted for cash laundering in the UK.

Magu was a part of the group that investigated the Halliburton bribery scandal. The investigators submitted a report which indicted prime authorities functionaries. However, it was thrown into the dustbin.

In addition to, Magu has been concerned in unravelling the arms scandal which had ensnared main members of the Jonathan administration. He was a member of the Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption and the investigative committee arrange by the Nationwide Safety Adviser (NSA), Babagana Monguno, on the orders of President Buhari to probe the procurement of arms within the armed forces from 2007 to 2015.

His profession at EFCC has not been a mattress of Rose’s. It has been filled with ups and downs. In August 2008, he was accused of illegally retaining the case recordsdata of prime politicians being investigated by the fee. His home in Abuja was searched on the orders of Mrs. Waziri. A few of his property have been carted away by the EFCC operatives. After days in detention, nothing incriminating was discovered in opposition to him. He was subsequently redeployed to the police and posted to Delta State.

His saving grace was Lamorde, who bounced again as EFCC chairman in 2011. Having labored with him when he was the Head of the Operations Unit, he may vouch for him. His return to the fee was initially blocked. However, Lamorde prevailed on former President Jonathan to approve the redeployment. Not even in his wildest creativeness wouldn’t it have occurred to him that he would finally succeed Lamorde.

Beneath Magu, the company investigated extra suspects and secured convictions. Extra looted funds have been additionally recovered. Like his predecessors, he complained that the corruption circumstances have been “slower” due to the intricacies and judicial processes concerned. However, many stakeholders, notably attorneys, lauded the increasingly-used plea bargaining course of, which has raised the pace of litigation and made culprits to return a number of the looted funds.

EFCC was no respecter of individuals underneath Magu. Outstanding Nigerians captured by the EFCC radar embrace Mrs. Persistence Jonathan, spouse of the previous president, Senator Saraki, Ekiti State Governor Ayodele Fayose, former NSA Col. Ibrahim Dasuki (rtd), former Minister of Aviation Femi Fani-Kayode, former Minister of State for Protection Senator Musiliu Obanikoro, former Oyo State Governor Rashidi Ladoja, his Abia State counterpart, Orji Kalu, and former Petroleum Ministers Diezani Alison-Madueke and Dan Etete, and former Lawyer-Common and Minister of Justice Mohammed Adoke.

Aside from politicians, many senior attorneys, judges, different judicial officers, businessmen, Nationwide Pension Fee (PenCom) officers, and personal residents are within the EFCC web over allegations of corruption. Faculties, hospitals, firms, golf equipment and societies have been additionally investigated over fraud.

Additionally, EFCC officers weren’t shielded from probe and prosecution. The truth is, in latest instances, Magu has positioned the operatives underneath surveillance, following complaints by members of the general public in regards to the dealing with of corruption circumstances.

To Magu, EFCC deserves a cross mark for “conviction, dedication and professionalism.” Nevertheless, the assertion is disputed by his critics. The opposition PDP has flayed the company for what it described as its discriminatory method, alleging that it has turn into a device for witch-hunting its members. Additionally, attorneys have identified that the fee has typically violated the rule of legislation and breached human rights of suspects within the prosecution of its anti-corruption struggle. The truth is, the Nigeria Bar Affiliation (NBA) had decried the EFCC’s actions, urging the Federal Authorities to scale back its powers and sphere of operations. NBA proposed that the fee be restricted to investigation whereas prosecution needs to be dealt with by an unbiased prosecution company. The suggestion sparked a row between the NBA and the fee.

At a lecture in Lagos, Magu additionally took on some “darkish forces” and “a gang of rogue parts,” who he accused of plotting to hijack the powers of the EFCC to battle financial and monetary crimes. He was silent on who the darkish forces have been. However, he mentioned categorically that the forces preventing for the soul of the company and looking for to applicable its features and powers have been after its derailment.

Magu identified that, because the judiciary is vital to the success of the anti-corruption struggle, judges needs to be above board. He doubted if the third arm of presidency has been repositioned to play the function successfully. Some attorneys and judges, he mentioned, have given the bar and the bench a foul identify.

“The largest type of corruption will not be those you discover in authorities places of work or banks; it isn’t those plaguing the oil business or pension administration. The largest, most virulent type of corruption that ever existed is the one which has eaten deep into the material of the temple of justice,” he added.

Certainly, Magu had stepped on some toes. Thus, forward of the Senate affirmation in 2015, aggrieved stakeholders had clearly been sharpening their arrows and knives to take a pound of flesh from him. The Presidency and the Senate have been polarised over Magu and his future.

The safety report submitted by the Division of State Providers (DSS) finally turned the weapon exploited to nail the anti-corruption fighter. The crux of the issue was that the DSS claimed Magu has failed the “integrity check.”

Though there was one other safety report which made a case for Magu’s affirmation, the clarification didn’t halt the injury performed by the primary report. Curiously, the injurious DSS report was a large departure from the report of different safety businesses, together with the police and the Nationwide Intelligence Company (NIA), which cleared him.

In response to the controversial report, Magu’s affirmation would create a legal responsibility for the anti-corruption drive. The report reminded the Senate that the appearing chairman was indicted by the Police Service Fee (PSC) over an alleged misdemeanour.

Additionally, the report identified that his home was searched and delicate supplies which weren’t imagined to be with him have been discovered there. Magu was additionally accused of ostentatious way of life; he lived in an house with an annual lease of N20 million and the cash will not be paid by the EFCC.

He was additionally alleged to have flown firstclass to Saudi Arabia for the lesser hajj, opposite to a presidential directive.

The allegation that delicate paperwork have been present in Magu’s home haunted him through the tenure of Mrs. Waziri. Magu was queried by the previous Inspector-Common of Police, Mike Okiro, for withholding EFCC recordsdata.

His defence ought to have elicited a clear invoice of well being. On August 25, 2008, he replied the question, stating that no unauthorized official doc or any incriminating materials was present in his home. He mentioned he solely took some recordsdata dwelling to work on them.

Magu acknowledged as follows: “I want to state that the character of my project on the EFCC is such that I labored around the clock and it’s not possible for me to do my work successfully with out engaged on some paperwork at dwelling. That is the rationale I preserve an workplace bag the place paperwork regarding investigations have been stored. The doc listed have been present in my workplace bag, which I used to be within the strategy of handing over and weren’t discovered hidden anyplace in my home.

“It’s due to this fact, not right that I bluntly refused handy over the EFCC’s property and paperwork. I had simply concluded handing over the Abuja workplace and I used to be in Lagos to conclude handing over the Lagos workplace when the search was performed. On the time of the search, I had not reported to my new command. It may due to this fact, not be my intention to maintain authorities paperwork in my home.”

Magu complained to Okiro that he had been maltreated for serving the EFCC and the nation diligently. He mentioned the allegations in opposition to him have been false.

He mentioned: “I’ve suffered untold humiliation throughout the previous one month. My dwelling was ransacked, vandalized and my properties destroyed by males of the EFCC. I used to be detained for 3 weeks in a cell meant for hardened criminals.”

Instructively, after the investigation, Magu was exonerated by Okiro. He was later posted to the Particular Fraud Unit of the police and promoted to the rank of an Assistant Commissioner of Police.

Questions have additionally been raised over the second allegation that Magu lived in a home rented for N20 million yearly and that the invoice was offset by Umar, and never the EFCC. It was gathered that the property was paid for by the Federal Capital Improvement Administration (FCDA). The home is situated at Maitama District. Magu, who was residing in Karu, an Abuja suburb, earlier than he turned the appearing chairman, moved into the official residence.

For the reason that inception of the EFCC, solely Magu was not confirmed by the Senate, following his nomination by the president. The appearing chairman by no means triumphed over the affirmation hurdles. Additionally, previous allegations have continued to hunt him.

The present prices have been constructed on these previous allegations to make him an ethical legal responsibility unfit for the workplace of a czar. Will he survive? The possibilities, mentioned sources, are slim.

However, what additionally turns into of the company after his predictable exit?

There are different puzzles: Who succeeds him? Will his successor be above politicking? Will earlier accusation of manipulation and witch looking of perceived political enemies additionally hunt the fee sooner or later?

Will the brand new helmsman in post-Magu period reposition the fee and rekindle public confidence?

Time will inform.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *