On this article, Nathan Searle creates a guidelines of choices out there to Nigerian and different African companies whose contractual obligations have been affected by the coronavirus outbreak.


With African commerce remaining closely inter-continental, many African corporations have by now felt a primary shock wave from the influence of the novel coronavirus on worldwide commerce typically.

A key query for African companies is whether or not the coronavirus outbreak can excuse them or their counterparts from performing their contractual obligations, akin to by triggering a power majeure clause.

Whether or not in civil regulation jurisdictions, akin to Egypt, Morocco, Algeria, together with OHADA (Organisation for the Harmonisation of Enterprise Legislation in Africa) jurisdictions, akin to Côte d’Ivoire and Senegal; or widespread regulation jurisdictions, akin to Nigeria, Kenya, Ghana and Tanzania; or South Africa with each civil and customary regulation parts, this problem is addressed in related however other ways.

Though mechanisms in each civil and customary regulation programs excuse efficiency of obligations in some circumstances, the hurdles are excessive and it’s advisable that you simply search recommendation at an early stage. As a preliminary step, right here’s our guidelines on what to do within the quick future:

Examine your contract’s governing regulation

For widespread law-governed contracts, the precise phrases used within the contract are what decide whether or not there could also be a sound excuse for non-performance.

For civil law-governed contracts, there are normally power majeure-type provisions included within the regulation, for instance in OHADA regulation, which apply the place the contract doesn’t deal with the difficulty. Nonetheless, if particular contractual provisions are included, these will habitually take precedence.

Discover the power majeure clause or different helpful contractual provisions

Examine rigorously whether or not there’s a power majeure clause in your contract – it could possibly be buried someplace surprising or confer with “exceptions”, “unexpected occasions” or “acts of God” reasonably than power majeure.

There might also be different provisions, which may present safety when performing a contract turns into troublesome. One risk is a hardship clause, which could apply when an unforeseeable occasion makes the efficiency of the contract excessively burdensome, and might result in an adjustment of the industrial phrases. The precise wording of the clause is necessary to find out its scope.

Different helpful clauses might embrace: materials adversarial change, worth adjustment, legal responsibility limitations and exclusions, extensions of time, variations or modifications in regulation – for instance, legal guidelines prohibiting staff from working, or transportation controls, which decelerate the provision chain.

If there is no such thing as a power majeure clause, beneath widespread regulation, events won’t be able to depend on power majeure, though the widespread regulation doctrine of frustration could apply to discharge a contract if it has turn out to be unlawful or unattainable to carry out or efficiency has turn out to be radically totally different.

Nonetheless, in civil regulation jurisdictions you could possibly fall again on the power majeure protections within the regulation. Such legal guidelines, together with OHADA regulation, normally embrace three standards: that (i) there may be an obstacle that’s (ii) past the events’ will and management and which (iii) the events couldn’t have moderately foreseen.

A doctrine of hardship is step by step being launched in sure jurisdictions additionally, permitting a rebalancing of the contract the place efficiency continues to be doable, albeit considerably extra burdensome for one of many events.

Determine the occasions coated by the provisions 

Upon getting decided the clause or regulation to use, you have to to ascertain the occasions it covers. Look intently at how occasions are outlined within the power majeure, hardship or different clauses, and resolve whether or not coronavirus matches the definition.

For instance, in a power majeure clause, epidemics and pandemics – even when particularly coated by the clause – typically aren’t outlined exactly. Nonetheless, coronavirus’ classification as a world pandemic is more likely to go away room for little doubt.

As well as, some governments have additionally formally licensed coronavirus as a power majeure occasion of their jurisdiction, which can help a celebration’s power majeure declare.

If neither epidemics nor pandemics are talked about, the clause might nonetheless be triggered the place it covers labour and provide shortages (that are attributable to coronavirus) or broadly defines occasions as distinctive, past one occasion’s management, unavoidable and never attributable to the opposite occasion.

Given the distinctive nature of the present state of affairs, coronavirus will typically fulfil such contractual or authorized definition, though for very current contracts – entered into after excessive measures had been already put in place in sure components of the world – there could possibly be debate about whether or not such occasions had been foreseeable.

Notify the contractual excuse

To depend on contractual provisions that excuse efficiency of obligations, the occasion that you simply depend on have to be the one one affecting contractual efficiency, until clearly acknowledged in any other case. In different phrases, “however for” coronavirus, a celebration should have been keen and capable of carry out.

If the hyperlink between the occasion and the non-performance is obvious, you might want to perceive the consequences of notifying a contractual excuse to your counterparty.

These will differ from contract to contract. As soon as a power majeure occasion is notified, for instance, the consequences will fluctuate relying on how lengthy the efficiency is affected. The contract could enable for the correct to droop, search an extension of time, or for both occasion to terminate it.

Comply strictly with contractual discover necessities

Whether or not you resolve to set off a power majeure or hardship clause, you need to ask your self:

?      Is an preliminary discover of the power majeure/ hardship occasion wanted?

?      Should you provide supporting particulars and proof of the occasion and its results?

?      By when and in what kind ought to notices (preliminary and subsequent) and supporting paperwork be served?

It’s essential to additionally reply rapidly to notices acquired out of your counterparty, as failure to reply to a discover inside stipulated cut-off dates could represent acceptance of the counterparty’s power majeure or hardship declare.

Doc proof which helps your declare and highlights your mitigation efforts

Correctly file and retailer proof of all communications along with your counterparties concerning the disruption and its results, together with order or service cancellations.

Underneath widespread regulation, you need to mitigate the consequences of a power majeure occasion; so, doc cheap steps taken to take action. Though there is no such thing as a particular doctrine of mitigation throughout all civil regulation jurisdictions, OHADA regulation has expressly included the mitigation precept, specifying {that a} occasion should have taken all cheap steps to restrict its loss or protect its beneficial properties, and elsewhere the overall rules of mitigation might be implied in different methods, such nearly as good religion or damages calculations, and in all circumstances.

Put together for the ending of the obstructive occasion

If power majeure has been claimed, agree along with your counterparty on a date when obligations will resume after the occasion and its results have ended, particularly if the contract is unclear.

The provision chain will want time and sources to renew operations or clear backlogs and the occasion claiming power majeure gained’t need to be in breach as soon as the occasion is over.

There could, in restricted circumstances, be room to discover (or a contractual proper to request) an extra extension of time for efficiency.

Nonetheless, you usually tend to get aid throughout their mobilisation interval by highlighting to your counterparty that the occasion is over however the stopping results are nonetheless being felt.

As the consequences of coronavirus are felt at totally different instances, power majeure notices might proceed to be issued after it’s downgraded from a pandemic. Is the situation of the power majeure occasion talked about? For instance, would your clause be triggered if there have been nonetheless an epidemic on the place of supply however not the place of manufacture?

Study classes for future disruptions 

Assess your provide chain contracts so you realize which counterparties are more likely to be affected by coronavirus (in the event that they haven’t already) and by different future obstructive occasions. Have interaction with them early to plan easy methods to handle these conditions.

Do power majeure clauses in your present and future contracts clearly and expressly allocate power majeure danger? Do you’ve got a hardship clause in your contract and have you ever thought of its results? Relying in your relationships with counterparties, take into consideration amendments to arrange for future outbreaks.

Because the above guidelines exhibits, there are easy steps that African companies and their authorized counsel can take to test whether or not the coronavirus outbreak can excuse them or their counterparts from performing their contractual obligations.

When taking these steps, you will need to concentrate on the regulation relevant to the contract, as there might be specificities relying on whether or not the contract is ruled by civil or widespread regulation.

It’s also helpful to keep in mind the alternate options to a power majeure declare; whereas power majeure excuses efficiency, a hardship provision, as an illustration, may allow events to adapt efficiency the place this stays doable, reasonably than merely ceasing efficiency totally.


  • Searle is a Associate at international regulation agency Hogan Lovells.


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