In August 2019, the Nigerian Authorities led by President Muhammadu Buhari declared a partial land border closure with a purpose to halt the importation of meals amongst different items. The smuggling of rice – Nigeria’s staple meals – stays enterprise as regular regardless of the restriction order by the president. GABRIEL OGUNJOBI went undercover between March 12 and 17 to show the schemes of smugglers working throughout the border between Nigeria and Benin Republic.



It was noon on March 12, Monday, popularly nicknamed ‘J-Boy’, a swift, street-smart motorcyclist flapped his cow-skinned, transportable bag on the entrance of his bike, prepared to fireside on.

J-Boy was not only a good rider, but additionally an awesome confederate with the Kogi-born Mohammed  Muktar, who’s adept within the enterprise of smuggling international rice from Benin Republic to Nigeria.

Road-smart Monday a.ka. ‘J-Boy’, a motorcycle rider who makes a residing as international rice provider

It ought to ordinarily be a troublesome job to dare journey in another country with no legitimate proof of identification however it’s extra herculean to smuggle baggage of international rice beneath the nostril of males of the Nigeria Police Power, the Nigerian Military, the Nigeria Customs Service and the Nigeria Safety and Civil Protection Corps (NSCDC) – particularly at the moment when the borders are shut.  However none of those safety brokers might cease Mohammed, a infamous smuggler, and his accomplices.

So, when Mohammed gave J-Boy a nod to experience on, the latter took the cue directly. “No qualms,” he mentioned, bravely and gravely.

On his Bajaj bike, he carried Mohammed and the reporter – and zoomed off, travelling the horrible roads that join Towe de l’arrondissement (that means ‘city’) in Benin Republic, from Nigeria – ranging from Igan Alade street – Yewa North, Ogun State.


An undercover expedition into the world of smugglers

As we sped off on the crude terrain, I rapidly expressed my nervousness in regards to the harmful journey we had simply commenced. However my co-travellers, who knew how the system works informed me to relax, assuring me of security and success within the journey.

Nonetheless, the smugglers had no concept that I used to be a journalist working beneath cowl. I had earlier introduced myself to Mohammed as a beginner, who would like to spend money on the smuggling of international rice from Benin Republic to Nigeria. Nonetheless, earlier than placing my cash on the road, I informed him I wanted to expertise how smugglers outsmart Nigeria’s safety brokers. I wanted to gauge the danger concerned within the enterprise into which I used to be venturing.

Earlier than lastly crossing the Nigerian border to Benin Republic, we travelled by Igan Alade, one of many communities on the borderline of Ogun State and Towe, a neighbouring city on the French-speaking Republic of Benin – bypassing a police station at Igan Alade, an NSCDC Divisional Headquarters at Tata group, a Nigeria Customs Space Command on the Ijoun group, and not less than seven checkpoints manned by completely different safety brokers.

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Nigerian Customs’ station at Ijoun, off the group’s market

All through my spherical journey to look at the smuggling expedition, I seen that not one of the officers at any of those checkpoints – often barricaded with bamboo throughout two sides of the roads – was significantly focused on stopping any smuggling exercise.

As an alternative, the officers greeted us with flashes of smiles and generally, hand-waves.

To clear international rice out of Benin Republic solely prices N200, Rice retailer claims

As at 4:15 p.m., once we arrived at Towe, Coronavirus, probably the most ravaging pandemic of the century, was simply starting to take a toll on rice costs in Benin Republic.

Earlier than then, a greenback was exchanged for N360/366 at Bureau De Change market, but it surely immediately rose to between N405 and N420 that morning. The naira crash instantly influenced the value of international rice. Twenty-four hours in the past, a bag of rice was bought at N9,000 at any retailer’s outlet in Benin. It was already N10,200 on the morning of March 12.

“Your foreign money has no market worth in our nation but you will have too many grasping officers on the street,” mentioned Mme (Ms.) Ramantou Akiyemi, a rice retailer, to spite Nigeria’s foreign money worth.

“When you’re going again, our officers will clear you with simply N200 – and that’s all! – irrespective of the

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Welcome to Benin Republic  The Beninese Police Checkpoint
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A signpost in Benin Republic, close to Towe

numbers of baggage of rice you keep on a motorcycle. However, in your land, the taxes are overbearing.”

In a sudden plot-twist, Mohammed got here up with a masterplan as this time round he was in a position to purchase nearly 5 baggage.

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Towe City, Benin Republic

Smugglers’ mafia techniques

“It isn’t price it to waste any cash on the street since it’s simply 5 baggage I’m now shopping for. Let’s make a reserving right now and are available again to hold them,” Mohammed mentioned, progressively unfolding how he meant to evade all securities with out paying a dime.

He would later reveal that his regular scale of rice smuggling ranges from 5 to 10 bikes, noting that every bike would carry round 10 to 15 baggage directly – relying on how sturdy the rider is to regulate the wheel. Paying bribes on the street doesn’t bug him, however, for simply 5 baggage, there’s a smarter technique to minimize the fee.

On this planet of smugglers, 4 codified phrases are employed for communication – ‘settlement’, ‘reserving’, ‘lead’ and ‘informant’. They typify how conveniently smugglers function day out and in – earlier than and after the federal authorities invoked a restrictive coverage on borders.

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Rice smuggler on the run…

‘Settlement’ is the bribe of N1,000 at each checkpoint minus the police’s. That is so as a result of  the policemen at Igan Alade junction are ‘booked’ earlier than any journey. Customs officers and troopers will solely acquire bribe once they catch merchants with unlawful items. With the police, the rule is completely different. Smugglers should disclose their mission forward of their journey. That’s why theirs known as ‘reserving’.

Rice smuggling in Nigeria
4 codes on this planet of smugglers you must find out about

Other than the bribe-taking safety brokers, it’s often a fortunate day for the likes of J-Boy who threat their lives to smuggle rice. So, their cost will not be open for negotiation: it’s a flat fee of N2,500 per bag to wherever in Igan Alade.

Discuss of the spine equipment in smuggling, you consider the ‘Lead’. By means of a hell-hole smuggling, the Lead runs forward – like two miles – on his bike, trying unsuspecting however vigilant to a fault. He makes the settlements that can be required at every of the checkpoints. Additionally intermittently, he calls the precise provider to maintain observe of their journey or warn as soon as he sights anybody parading suspiciously. The smugglers know their gangs and may simply spot one who doesn’t belong to the clique. That enemy the Lead is searching for known as ‘informant’.

The concern of informants… 

As fearless as Mohammed appeared in countenance, he admitted that informants had been his nightmare within the enterprise.

He cursed them anytime he talked about them. They simply parade bushes on the border, and make a name to the Customs patrol squad the second a smuggler is sighted, he informed the reporter.

‘They might see you mapping plans and simply preserve trailing you with out elevating suspicion. They’re the unlucky individuals on this work. They don’t need us to prosper and for that they are going to by no means prosper too. I concern them,” he quipped, dropping a missile of rebuke for his nameless foes.

FUN FACTS - Mohammed Muktar wore this very shirt for over three days. He is evasive to the securities but informant is his nightmare..
FUN FACTS – Mohammed Muktar wore this very shirt for over three days. He’s evasive to the securities however informant is his nightmare

It may be a nasty day for the informants as a result of generally they threat being hacked down, as I heard from J-Boy in certainly one of my interactions with the smugglers.

“Typically, if we discover the identical unfamiliar individual retains us on a motorcycle, we will problem him. On some powerful days, we use allure and cutlass on them.”

From that time onward, I made up my thoughts by no means to be mistaken for an informant. Such misfortune will definitely jeopardise my project, or endanger my life.

How smugglers boycott safety brokers from Benin Republic to Igan Alade

  • N1,000 bribe to smuggle in 5 baggage of international rice 

At nightfall of Friday, March 13, in Igan Alade, the reporter retired to Mohammed’s makeshift residence. Apparently, the shelter was lower than a mile from the police station across the previous submit workplace within the border group.

After finalising preparations with a police officer often recognized as Officer Sunday (additionally from Kogi, like Mohammed), we agreed that Saturday can be the day to witness learn how to evade all safety brokers manning the porous borders with 5 baggage of rice.

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It’s time for strategic planning between Mohammed and Officer Sunday, forward of Saturday’s rice smuggling

Mohammed made a bid for a brand new group of smugglers’ bike riders – J-Boy was now not within the group. What made their resume extra convincing was past simply being brothers; they spoke French they usually had been vastly acquainted with all short-cuts.

That was Mohammed’s masterplan from day one.

The one exercise this second time in Towe, which is rice mounting on a motorcycle, was as swift as it may be.

The 2 brothers rode fearlessly into the thick bushes, darting into all attainable corners. A number of instances, we had been trapped within the mud and at one other time, it was the hurdles of crossing a bridge anchored by planks that broke the sweats for us.  In whole, our perilous crisscrossing lasted virtually three hours inside Igbo nla village often called Ile Komi.

Afterwards, we arrived in Idi Ori in Tata, a residential settlement in between Igan Alade and Ijoun communities.

The fetish fortification of rice smugglers

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Baba Seun’s hut at Idi Ori in Tata That is the place Ogun Smuggler’s Energy Lives.

Palpable concern enveloped me after bursting into Baba Seun’s hut at Idi Ori from Ile Komi bushes. That was Mohammed’s hideout and storehouse upon return from each Benin journey. Apparently, the storehouse is simply on the yard of NSCDC Ketu Headquarters – a stone’s throw away.

Baba Seun, a herbalist, had no comely face to behold and so was his dreadful neighborhood. By one aspect of his home was hung cranium of a canine and on the bottom was clotted-blood, with a littering chicken’s feathers.

Subsequent to this was an remoted hut, his power-room for consultations. I used to be not allowed in. I solely peeped to see plain-white clothes, small pods suspended to the roof, calabash flattened to the wall and the sorts of costumes I solely see in Yoruba motion pictures. It was a frightful sight.

After the lengthy journey on Saturday, I briefly opted out of the sphere. With the 5 baggage of rice within the hideout, Mohammed couldn’t enterprise on one other expedition.

By Tuesday, March 17, Baba Seun had fortified the area the place he stored the smuggled rice earlier than our return.

“It is best to have informed me earlier earlier than coming right here. They aren’t but prepared for carriage. Anybody who steps into that place or speaks a phrase whereas carrying will stoop and die,” he mentioned.

A double-check on my confidence degree flashed zero at this level. His enchantment on the encircling was meant for enemies in case they burst in on them. They might die!


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Now that we had been there, it might take the herbalist round one hour to take away the spells.

Close to the hidden baggage of rice was a pot of herbs, with puffing smoke beneath. So long as the smoke stays alive there, nobody dared discuss, besides to hold the rice to the open and pack for transport.

After the train, I used to be quickly ready for the final-leg of my covert operation. Subsequent expedition can be from Idi Ori to Igbogila, one other group forward after which to Abeokuta, the capital of Ogun State.

However, there was only one unavoidable huddle to beat, and that’s the police safety checkpoint.

The checkpoint was on the market entrance of Igan Alade and by the very left was a bush-path resulting in Igbogila.

Mohammed is seen giving Police officer Sunday bribe

With the short name ‘go! go!’ like a parade commandant, we adopted the cue of Officer Sunday to forge forward. This time, Mohammed had hopped down from the bike and was already by the aspect of the police officer, enclosing one thousand naira to his left hand. With the 5 baggage of rice, we had been now off to Igbogila

N1,000 was all it prices!


At round 4:30 p.m on Tuesday, March 17, I alongside two rice transporters, had been already on the way in which from Igan Alade to Igbogila – two Ogun communities tucked in-between the border of Nigeria and Benin Republic. Because of Officer Sunday of the Police station department at Igan Alade.

The reporter was now not apprehensive of any issue on the way in which. In spite of everything, N1,000 was all it took to purchase the safety of a corrupt Nigerian Police officer who allowed us to drive previous border communities with smuggled rice price N51,000.

At Igbogila, Kazeem Olakolade, a rice transporter in his 50s had been really useful to us. In style for his shrewdness, he hoards smuggled rice in his home.

His mantra learn like these:

“There are locations I don’t cross to hold ‘Oja’ (the native parlance for international rice) irrespective of the cash you supply to pay me – like Igan Alade, Ijoun. That’s the area for some boys’ enterprise and I can’t trespass. However, from right here to Abeokuta, they know me.”

“And, in your info, I don’t inform prospects about my itinerary. You possibly can’t comply with me too. Once I get to Abeokuta, I would be the one to name you. Simply get my cash prepared,” he declared.

A couple of minutes after 6pm on Tuesday, we’re at his place with the 5 baggage of rice. The reporter would now not have the ability to observe the way it will get to the ultimate vacation spot. Olakolade’s  cost for the transportation from Igbogila to Abeokuta is N3,000 per bag which implies he’ll make a complete of N15,000 from the journey.

Mohammed was reluctant to pay that a lot however he made an effort to justify it.

‘It’s that a lot as a result of I additionally settle too many operatives on the street.  On this enterprise, one can not afford to be frugal in any other case you’re doomed.’

To date, one or two issues are actually established: that high-level smuggling nonetheless thrives in Ogun State by borders and likewise that the efforts of some serious-minded Customs officers are sabotaged by a number of grasping tons. The reporter can solely testify to that of the Police (Officer Sunday specifically) which he witnessed.

By the way, on Saturday, Could 14, the Customs operatives of the Nationwide Border drill intercepted some smugglers at Imasayi city in Yewa North Native Authorities throughout an anti-smuggling operation.

A Customs officer finally died in the course of the operation that turned violent between officers and smugglers and the neighboring cities skilled a number of days of unrest over the bloody conflict.

The spokesman for the Ogun State Command of NCS, Abdullahi Maiwada informed this reporter that investigation has been initiated after one of many suspects was arrested.


Towards all odds, international rice landed in Abeokuta

Due to the latest disaster, one didn’t anticipate Olakolade to efficiently transport the ‘exhibit’ from Igbogila, lower than 5 kilometers away from Imasayi, right down to Abeokuta regardless of a latest bloody conflict on that route.

However at round 12:30 pm on Thursday, March 19, he known as us to say 5 baggage of international rice are actually in Abeokuta.

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Breakdown on what 5 baggage of rice value. Credit score: Reward Olowe

Between Igbogila and Ita-Oshin at Abeokuta, there are not less than 5 checkpoints often manned by officers of the Nigerian Customs, Importers Affiliation of Nigeria (IMAN), Military and Police, however he doesn’t pay a dime by himself.

His mode of operation is just like that of different smugglers I had interacted with in the course of the course of this undercover project.

His Lead, in line with the international rice transporter, drove forward to settle all safety males on the checkpoints and monitored his distance by intermittent cellphone calls.

‘For this reason I insisted that you simply shouldn’t name me in the course of the journey to assist my very own focus on the street’, he mentioned.


“Border complexity, restricted sources are our largest issues” – Customs PRO

Regardless of federal authorities’s lockdown imposed on the nation’ capital, Abuja, Lagos and Ogun states, Abdullahi Maiwada, the Public Relations Officer for the Ogun State Command of NCS, in an interview with the reporter, acknowledged that about 2,000 baggage of 50kg rice had been confiscated from cross-border smugglers in Ogun State alone in April.

He, nevertheless, admitted to the challenges of border porosity, partly blaming it on restricted sources.

‘Regardless of working in probably the most advanced terrain when it comes to the geography and porosity of the border, we’re among the many greatest NCS Instructions within the nation. We cannot convey a complete finish to smuggling however our duty is to suppress the actions’, the NCS’ spokesman mentioned.

‘Apart from the seven accredited routes of motion of products and individuals in Ogun state, there are over a 100 unapproved routes these smugglers navigate to hold out their illicit enterprise.

‘We simply should handle our restricted sources to attain the specified intention’, he added.

Maiwada briefly established that there are inner mechanisms to self-discipline erring operatives caught conniving with smugglers whereas smugglers apprehended with accomplices are left to the judiciary to prosecute.

This, generally, doesn’t occur as the newest arrest made is a chief smuggler inside Ogun borders who has a previous document of arrest by NCS Ogun Command, Maiwada revealed.

Unequivocally, Maiwada’s assertions confirmed two clogs within the wheels for Ogun State Command of NCS. The primary is that ‘Ile Komi’ the place Mohammed’s group had taken me by from Benin Republic and Igbokofi city in Yewa North LGA could proceed to be strongholds of smuggling besides safety operatives are deployed to man the routes.

One other is that, till NCS is legally empowered to prosecute any confederate in smuggling, together with safety operatives and the native residents in border communities, smuggling would proceed to thrive.


  • **This investigation was accomplished with the help of Worldwide Centre for Investigative Reporting, ICIR.


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